The sign test for trend: An application in plant breeding


Cosme Damião CRUZ [2]

Luiz Alexandre PETERNELLI 1

Ana Carolina Mota CAMPANA 1

Danielle Silva PINTO 2

Reinaldo de Paula FERREIRA[3]

§    ABSTRACT: This work demonstrated that the sign test for trend, frequently used in Times Series to test the non-stationarity of the series, can be used for the study of the genotype x environment interaction in plant species. With the use of this test, the decision on the adaptability and stability of a cultivar can also based upon probability, more precisely, in the test p-value. To evaluate and exemplify its application, 92 alfalfa cultivars were studied in 20 cuttings carried out from November 2004 to July 2006. It was used a randomized block design, with two repetitions. The results found demonstrate that the signs test for trend is efficient for the study of the phenotypical adaptability, and that it is possible to classify cultivars according to the interest of the study.

§    KEYWORDS:  Non-parametric tests; genotype environment interaction; statistical analysis.

[1] Departamento de Informática - Área de Estatística, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, CEP: 36570-000, Viçosa, MG, Brasil. E‑mail:,, carolcampana@viç

[2] Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, CEP: 36570-000, Viçosa, MG, Brasil, E‑mail:,

[3] Embrapa – Centro de Pesquisa de Pecuária do Sudeste, Rua Washington Luiz, km 234, CEP 13560-970, São Carlos, SP, Brasil. E-mail: